The coca bush has been cultivated for millennia, and 2000-year-old mummies from Nazca, Peru, have been found with small bags used for coca leaves in their possession (Stolberg, 2011). However, studies of drug use by pairs of fraternal twins suggest a significant genetic influence on the risk of developing cocaine abuse or dependence after use has begun. Coca leaf is the raw material for the manufacture of the drug cocaine, a powerful stimulant and anaesthetic extracted chemically from large quantities of coca leaves. [41] Because coca constricts blood vessels, it also serves to oppose bleeding, and coca seeds were used for nosebleeds. Coca leaves were transported back to Europe, where there was intermittent interest in their psychoactive properties. [citation needed] Other names for this basifying substance are llipta in Peru and the Spanish word lejía, bleach in English.

The branches are straight, and the leaves, which have a green tint, are thin, opaque, oval, and taper at the extremities.

Besides cocaine, the coca leaf contains a number of other alkaloids, including methylecgonine cinnamate, benzoylecgonine, truxilline, hydroxytropacocaine, tropacocaine, ecgonine, cuscohygrine, dihydrocuscohygrine, nicotine, and hygrine. The first and most abundant harvest is in March after the rainy season, the second is at the end of June, and the third in October or November.

It is normally consumed by inhalation under the form of salt, which can also be dissolved in water and used intravenously (Brunton et al., 2012; Oga, Camargo, & Batistuzzo, 2014; Rang et al., 2011). The metabolism is fast and occurs in the liver, leading to the main metabolite, ecgonine methyl ester, which originates from hydrolysis (Oga et al., 2014). Coca was used in Inca feasts and religious rituals, among many other things. Although teas made from coca leaves are illegal in the United States, they could be obtained unintentionally during travel in South America or purchased in ethnic or other stores selling herbal teas such as Health Inca and Mate De Coca, two coca-leaf teas previously removed from the market. [71] Bolivia led a diplomatic effort to do so beginning in March 2009, but eighteen countries out of a total of 184, those 18 being, listed chronologically: the United States, Sweden, United Kingdom, Latvia, Japan, Canada, France, Germany, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Italy, Mexico, Russian Federation, Malaysia, Singapore, and Ukraine, objected to the change before the January 2011 deadline. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. However, the possession of living plants of the genus Erythroxylon is not actively prosecuted, even though they are legally forbidden. It has been reported that extracellular 5-HT levels in the Nac and ventral pallidum, which were increased during cocaine self-administration, drop to below pre-drug baseline levels within 2 hours of withdrawal (Parsons et al., 1995; Sizemore et al., 2000). Glyphosate is a key ingredient in the multibillion-dollar aerial coca eradication campaign undertaken by the government of Colombia with U.S. financial and military backing known as Plan Colombia. Among the genus Erythroxylum, cocaine-rich leaves are obtained from four taxa: Erythroxylum coca var. When a boy is ready to be married, his mother initiates him in the use of the coca. The leaves are sometimes eaten by the larvae of the moth Eloria noyesi. Fresh Coca Leaves bags of fresh coca leaves on sale in a Peruvian marketplace "..the drug, made from the South American coca leaf, produces feelings of immense sexuality, psychic energy … Under the older Cronquist system of classifying flowering plants, this was placed in an order Linales; more modern systems place it in the order Malpighiales. [80], Coca leaf is considered a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (October 2015). [36], In the early 20th century, the Dutch colony of Java became a leading exporter of coca leaf. novogranatense and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. Once sifted, the powder is combined with ashes from plants which serve as the necessary alkaline admixture for coca chewing.[5]. James, A., Aulick, D., Plowman, T., 1975 "Nutritional Value of Coca", Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 24 (6): 113–119. In the United States, the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914 was passed to regulate the production and distribution of opium and cocaine, and was followed by a series of laws that made cocaine illegal. Today, since it has mostly been replaced as a medical anaesthetic by synthetic analogues such as procaine, cocaine is best known as an illegal recreational drug. truxillense is derived from it to be drought tolerant, and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. Little attention was paid to coca outside South America until the 'crack' cocaine … [22][23] Absorption of coca from the leaf is less rapid than nasal application of purified forms of the alkaloid (almost all of the coca alkaloid is absorbed within 20 minutes of nasal application,[24] while it takes 2–12 hours after ingestion of the raw leaf for alkaline concentrations to peak.[25]). [33][34] Many of these materials are salty in flavor, but there are variations. The coca leaf is listed on Schedule I of the 1961 Single Convention together with cocaine and heroin. ipadu may be better defined as a distinct cultivar than a taxonomic variety. "[66] It implicitly also dismissed the original report of the Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf by recognizing that "there is a need to undertake a scientific review to assess the coca-chewing habit and the drinking of coca tea. He was also listed as the 7th richest man in the world by Forbes magazine in 1989. Since Amazonian coca is vegetatively propagated, entire plantations may be populated from the same clone. South America and Western and Central Europe also report levels of use of 1% or more and are approaching those in North America and Oceania (UNODC, 2015a; EMCDDA, 2016c). Coca production begins in the valleys and upper jungle regions of the Andean region, where the countries of Colombia, Peru and Bolivia[14][15] are host to more than 98 per cent of the global land area planted with coca. At pH 6.5 and above, chlorosis and leaf distortion occur.[1]. The Colombian armed conflict was fought over cocaine distribution, and Pablo Escobar, leader of the largest cocaine trafficking organization, was known for ordering countless murders, including the bombing of an airline flight with 110 passengers on board. The Incas would put coca leaves in the mouths of mummies, which were a sacred part of Inca culture. Cocaine, a naturally occurring alkaloid obtained from the South American shrub Erythroxylum coca, is rapidly metabolized by cholinesterases to ecgonine methyl ester and benzoylecgonine, which are excreted in urine. The use of cocaine powder also became prominent, and Sigmund Freund was among the more well known of Victorian-era cocaine users. Indigenous use of coca has also been reported as a treatment for malaria, ulcers, asthma, to improve digestion, to guard against bowel laxity, as an aphrodisiac, and credited with improving longevity. Coca leaves play a crucial part in offerings to the apus (mountains), Inti (the sun), or Pachamama (the earth). Small doses of cocaine, which had little effect on, for example, locomotor activity, led to a much more intense and prolonged increase in 5-HT than sensory stimulation (Müller et al., 2007b; Pum et al., 2007, 2008) or behavioral activity (Rueter et al., 1997). By 1912 shipments to Amsterdam, where the leaves were processed into cocaine, reached 1000 tons, overtaking the Peruvian export market. The journey from first exposure to cocaine addiction is a complex one involving individual vulnerabilities as well as cultural, economic, legal, and demographic modifiers. There are two main theories relating to the evolution of the cultivated cocas. Mortimer, W. Golden. They are traditionally chewed with lime or some other reagent such as bicarbonate of soda to increase the release of the active ingredients from the leaf. Larry A. Broussard, in Accurate Results in the Clinical Laboratory, 2013. This potentiates the peripheral effects of sympathetic nervous activity and produces a sharp psychomotor effect (Brunton et al., 2012). Bohm B, Ganders F, Plowman T. Biosystematics and Evolution of Cultivated Coca (Erythroxylaceae). Wax crystals, adjuvant, spread coef- ficients. The prohibition of the use of the coca leaf except for medical or scientific purposes was established by the United Nations in the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. [79] but the actual quantity is unknown. 6 (11th ed.). The plant is grown as a cash crop in Argentine Northwest, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, even in areas where its cultivation is unlawful. Erythroxylum coca is one of two species of cultivated coca. ipadu, also known as Amazonian coca, is closely related to Erythroxylum coca var.

In addition, there are other varieties of cocaine-containing plants that are cultivated in Columbia and on the desert coast of Peru. Specifically, it lists Coca (Erythroxylon), its preparations, derivatives, alkaloids, and salts, including:(1) Coca leaves (2) Cocaine and (3) Ecgonine. The consumer carefully uses a wooden stick (formerly often a spatula of precious metal) to transfer an alkaline component into the quid without touching his flesh with the corrosive substance. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In some places, baking soda is used under the name bico.

During this period, it is thought that coca leaves were chewed primarily to enhance physical performance and to decrease the need for food and rest. Several promising candidate genes have been identified, including those for dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter, but no specific gene has been clearly linked with cocaine addiction. These included euphoria, increased attention, and the ability to work long hours without fatigue (Freud, 1884). It also can be used as a topical anesthetic, analgesic, diuretic, antispasmodic, antidepressant, and mood-elevating energizing tonic meant for normalizing bodily physiology (Manickam et al., 2014). "[70], In reaction to the 2007 Annual Report of the INCB, the Bolivian government announced that it would formally issue a request to the United Nations to unschedule the coca leaf of List 1 of the 1961 UN Single Convention. In the case of Argentina, it is legal only in some northwest provinces where the practice is so common that the state has accepted it. Because no compounds causing false-positive benzoylecgonine confirmation results have been reported, the interpretation of positive results should focus on explanations of cocaine introduction into the body. It is widely recognized for its action in enhancing work capacity, including the reduction of fatigue and the mitigation of thirst and hunger. During his speech to the General Assembly of the United Nations on September 19, 2006, he held a coca leaf in his hand to demonstrate its innocuity.[54]. In the series of Aubrey-Maturin novels by Patrick O'Brien, set during the Napoleonic wars, Dr. Stephen Maturin, a naval physician, naturalist, and British intelligence agent discovers the use of coca leaves on a mission to Peru, and makes regular use of them in several of the later novels in the series. This reduction in 5-HT activity in the Nac could be observed for at least 12 hours (Parsons et al., 1995). The plants thrive best in hot, damp and humid locations, such as the clearings of forests; but the leaves most preferred are obtained in drier areas, on the hillsides.



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