The Middle Ages (843–1492): the unification of the kingdom, The boundaries between the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire, Consolidation of royal power when faced with the Kings of England, The conquest of south feudal territories : Auvergne and Languedoc, The Early Modern period (1492–1789): conflicts with the Habsburgs of Spain and Austria, Integration of the last great feudal domains, Expansion toward the east: the frontier on the Rhine, Toward new conflicts with the house of Austria, Since the French Revolution (1789-present), Transformation arising from the French Revolution (1789–1815), Implementation of a new concept of national territory, Suppression of the provinces and creation of the départements, Tempting prizes beyond the natural boundaries of The Alps, Jura, Pyrenees and Rhine (1789–1799), Conquests during the period of the Consulate and of the Empire (1799–1815), An appraisal after the Congress of Vienna (1815): the Treaty of Paris (1815), Unification of Italy (1860) and the reunification of Germany (1866–1871): the effects, Reunification of Savoy and of the County of Nice (1860) with France, Modifications of the Monaco frontier (1861), France's position on Prussia's reunification of Germany, Alsace-Lorraine: contention between France and Germany (1871–1918 1940–1945), The Treaty of Paris with Italy (1947), last general revision of a French frontier, Appendix: minor modifications to the frontiers since 1815, Maps showing the development of the territory. They had been left with only Lower Navarre.

At the time this concept was introduced, half of France spoke Occitan, not French. Aiguille du Dru. In 987, the Carolingians were ousted in France by the election of Hugues Capet who imposed his dynasty. On the one side, the first Germanic monarchy would weaken itself in trying to re-establish the Carolingian Empire without having sufficient means. These were two provinces taken by conquest from the kings of England by Phillip Augustus and Louis VIII. the idea is that a border on the rhine would protect from an invasion over the great northern european plain. Fortified towns to the north of Lorraine (Montmédy, Thionville, Longwy, Saarlouis)[4] isolated the Duchy from other states of the German (Holy Roman) Empire so as to weaken the independence of the duke. The boundaries of our Republic must be there."[4]. These strategic losses and the construction of a powerful German state may be seen as giving rise to later diplomatic and military events. Well, nowaday if one day Spain imploded (and it's a possibility, Actually a good time this could have happened is in the 1820s, where a more, Oh yes, that could've happen, however France was more interested. Calanques National Park in Bouches-du-Rhône, Mont Blanc, the highest summit in Western Europe, Étang de Lavalduc, the lowest point in France.

By the 15th century, France had largely been denuded of its forests and was forced to rely on Scandinavia and their North American colonies for lumber. As a means of loosening old ties of allegiance, and of rationalizing administration, the old divisions based on feudal ownership were replaced by départements of roughly uniform size and named after geographical features such as rivers. This fragmentation is shown in more detail in the Holy Roman Empire map (see right edge of window) but at high resolution it is slow. The duchy of Lorraine would be formally annexed to France in 1766, when Stanisław died. Elsewhere, it was the great lords who exercised their authority, notably the six lay peers of France : the dukes of Aquitaine, of Burgundy and of Normandy, besides the counts of Champagne, of Flanders and of Toulouse.

The king released his Savoyard subjects following the plebiscite of the same month. This happened for example, in Poitou, in 1271 and Anjou, in 1481. The first-level administrative division of Integral France is regions. In 1947, in the Treaty of Paris, France gained about 700 km2, in five extensions of the national territory in the départements of Alpes-Maritimes, Hautes-Alpes and Savoie: Though the Paris Treaty settled disputes on these five points in the line of the border, in the area of the summits of Mont Blanc and Mont Blanc de Courmayeur, questions remain open.

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